Hardwood Flooring Glossary Terms
GRAIN: Closed, grain that is subdued, with uniform texture and moderate figuring. Occasionally shows fid, quilted & shellback, curly or bird’. Boards frequently culled throughout grading and sold at a premium.
HARDNESS (JANKA): 1450; 12% harder than Northern red oak.
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY: Typical (change coefficient .00353; four percent more stable than red oak).
DURABILITY: Dense, strong, tough, stiff shock resistance utilized in bowling alleys and centers. Markedly resistant to abrasive wear.
OAK — RED COLOR: Heartwood and sapwood are comparable, with sapwood lighter in color; most pieces have a reddish tone. Redder than white oak.
GRAIN: Open, slightly coarser (more porous) than white oak. Plainsawn boards possess a plumed or flared grain appearance; riftsawn has a grain patter quarters awn has a routine, shy & some; times called butterflies or tiger beams.
HARDNESS (JANKA): Northern 1290 (benchmark).
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY: Typical (change coefficient .00365; 1% more stable than red oak).
DURABILITY: More durable than oak. Tannic acid in the wood protects it from fungi and insects.
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY: Above average (change coefficient .00265; 28% more stable than red oak).
Decay – The early stage of decay that has not proceeded far enough to soften or otherwise perceptibly impair the hardness of the timber. It's accompanied with a small discoloration or bleaching of the wood.
DELAMINATION – The separation of layers in a laminate by failure inside the adhesive, or the bond between the adhesive and laminate.
DECIDUOUS -. DIFFUSE – POROUS WOOD – Some hardwoods where the pores are to be uniform in size and distribution through each yearly ring or that decreases in size slightly and progressively toward the outer edge of the annual growth ring.
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY – The capacity to keep up the original planned dimensions when affected by a foreign material. Wood is hygroscopic and isn't dimensional secure with changes in humidity content beneath the fiber saturation point.
DISTRESSED – A artificial texture where the ground was scraped, scratched, or gouged to give it a time worn antique look.
DRY WALL – Internal coating material, like gypsum board, chipboard, or plywood, which can be applied in massive sheets or panels.
EASED EDGE – The chamfered, or beveled border, of strip floors, plank, block, and parquet at approximately 45-degree angle. – The location where two pieces of floors are joined together to the end – In strips and Board floors the endings of individual bits have a tongue the tongue of one part engages the groove of the following piece. – The humidity content in which wood neither gains nor loses humidity when encompassed by air at a given relative moisture and temperature.
ACRYLIC/WOOD – A common name for wood-based plastic composites using wood impregnated with acrylic monomers and polymerized inside the wood cells by gamma irradiation. Some versions are cured by heat radiation.
AIR DRIED – Dry by exposure to air in a yard or drop without heat.
ANNUAL GROWTH RING – The layer such as spring and summerwood formed on a tree during a single growing season. BASE SHOE – a mold designed to be attached to the base casting to cover the expansion space. Comparable to quarter around in profile.
BASTARD SAWN – Lumber wherein the yearly rings make angles of 30 Levels to 60 Amounts with the surface of the piece.
BEVELED EDGE -. BOARD FOOT – A unit of measurement of lumber represented by a plank I ft long, 12 inches wide, and one inches thick or its equal. In practice, the calculation of the board foot for wood 1 inches or more in thickness is based on its thickness and width as well as the true length. Lumber with a nominal thickness of less than one inches is calculated as 1 inch.
BOW – The distortion of timber wherein there is a deviation, in a direction perpendicular to the face, from a straight line from end to end of the item.
BURL – A swirl or spin of the grain of the timber which usually happens near a knot but doesn't contain a knot.
CHECK – A separation of the wood that usually
extends through the rings of annual growth and commonly results in stress set up in wood during kiln drying or air drying.
CHIPBOARD – A paperboard used for purposes that might or might not have specifications for color durability, or other characteristics. It's typically made from paper stock with a low density in the thickness of 0.006 inches and upward.
COMPRESSION SET – Caused when timber strips or slats absorb humidity and expand so much that the cells along the edges of adjoining pieces in the floor are crushed. This causes them to lose resilience and creates cracks when the floor
returns to its normal moisture content.
CONIFEROUS -. CROOK – The distortion of a board wherein there is a deviation, in a direction perpendicular to the border, from a straight line from end to end of the item.
CROSSPULL – A condition occurring at a conclusion combined with the ends of flooring strips pulled in opposite directions.
CROWNING – A convex, or crowned, condition or appearance of bits, with the middle of the strip greater than the edges.
CUPPING – A concave, or dished, appearance of bits, with the edges increased over the middle. CURE – To alter properties of the adhesive chemical reaction.
FIRE RESISTANCE – The property of a material or an assembly, to resist fire or give protection from it.
FIRE RETARDANT – A chemical or a preparation of chemicals used to decrease flammability or slowing the spread of fire within the surface.
FLAG – A heavy, dark mineral series ad.
FLAG WORM HOLE – more than one parasitic hole.
FLAME SPREAD – The propagation of a fire away from the origin of ignition across the surface of a liquid or a solid, or throughout the quantity of a gaseous mixture.
FLECKS – The huge irregular conspicuous figure in Quarter sawn
HARDWOOD – Ordinarily, one of the botanical groups of deciduous trees that have broad leaves contrasts with the conifers or softwoods. The term has no reference to the real hardness of the wood.
HEARTWOOD – The wood extending from the pith of the sapwood, the cells of which no longer take part in the life processes of the shrub. It's darker than sapwood.
HEAVY STREAKS – streaks and Spots of adequate size and density to seriously mar the appearance of the wood.
HONEY COMBING – Checks frequently not visible at the surface, which happen in the inside of a piece of wood along the wood rays.
HYGROSCOPIC – A substance which can absorb and retain humidity or lose or throw moisture away. Wood and wood products are hygroscopic. They expand with absorption of humidity, and dimensions become smaller when humidity is lost or thrown away.
INTUMESCE – To expand with heat to provide a low-density film, used to some fire-retardant coatings.
JOINTED FLOORING – Strip flooring, generally Birch, Beech & Hard Maple, or Pecan, made with square edges and no tongue or groove, usually end matched. Used mainly for factory floors at which the square borders make replacement of strips easier. JOIST is one of a series of parallel beams used to support ceiling or floor loads and supported in turn by larger beams, girders, or bearing walls.
KILN – A chamber having controlled temperature air flow, and moisture for drying lumber, veneer, along with other wood products.
KILN DRIED – Dry in an oven with the use of heat.
KNOT – This pinion of limb or a branch that has been encompassed by subsequent growth of the stem. The shape of the knot as it appears on a cut surface is based on the angle of the cut relative to the long axis of the knot. & bull – In hardwood strip not over 1/2& Prime, in diameter. – A knot which is more than 1/2 inches in diameter. &, Sound Knot – A knot cut at roughly parallel to its long axis thus the exposed section is elongated.
LAMINATED WOOD – An assembly made by bonding layers of veneer or timber with adhesive. Can also refers to edge glued timber things like treads, etc.
MANUFACTURING DEFECTS – Contains all defects or blemishes which are made in production, such as grain, torn grain, skips in dressing, hit and miss, variation in machining, machine burn, and mis matching.
Medullary rays – Strips of cells extending radially inside a tree and varying in height from a few cells in some species at four or four inches in oak. The rays serve mainly to store food and transport it horizontally in the tree.
MINERAL STREAK – Wood containing the accumulation of mineral matter introduced with sap flow, causing an un natural color which range from greenish brown to black.
MIXED MEDIA – a wooden floor that's predominantly of timber, but incorporates other materials like slate, stone, ceramic, metal or marble.
Moisture content – The amount of humidity in wood expressed as a proportion of the weight of the counter top
MOSAIC PARQUET – A flooring made up of small solid pieces of wood assembled in units which might consist of squares, units by lamellas arranged in single or double herringbone design units or squares bordered by lamellas of the same or a contrasting species
NOSING – A wood casting used to cover the outside corner of a step, milled to meet the hardwood floor in the horizontal plane, to meet the riser from the perpendicular plane.
NOMINAL SIZE – As applied to timber or lumber, the size by which it's known and sold on the market, frequently is different from the actual dimension.
PARQUET – A patterned floor.
PARQUET FLOOR SQUARE – Practically a tile, composed of slats held in place with a mechanical fastening. A mayor might not possess tongues and grooves to interlock, and isn't necessarily square, or regular in dimension.
PAROUET FLOOR UNITS – A unit consists of four or more tiles or squares, fastened together.
PARTICLEBOARD – A generic term for material made from wood particles or other lingo material and synthetic resin or other suitable binder.
PLUGS – Dowels that mimic the Colonial American plugged or pegged plank look. Sometimes utilized to cover when installing plank.
PREFINISHED – A flooring which requires installation only.
QUARTERSAWED – The annual growth rings form an angle of 45 Degrees to 90 Degrees with the surface of the piece. In Quarters awed strips the medullary rays or marrow beams in ring porous woods are vulnerable as flecks that are reflective and produce a unique grain pattern.
RAISED GRAIN – A fuzzy or roughened condition on the surface of the floor where the dense summerwood is raised above the softer springwood, but not torn or split.
RAYS WOOD – Strips of cells extending radially inside a tree and varying in height from a few cells in some species to 4 inches or more in oak. The rays serve mainly store the food and transport it horizontally into a tree. On Quarter sawn oak floors, the beams form a conspicuous figure, sometimes referred to as Flecks.
REDUCER STRIP – A teardrop shaped molding accessory for hardwood flooring utilized at doorways, but occasionally in fireplaces and as a room divider. It's grooved on one border and tapered, or feathered, on the other border. A variety of lengths are available.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY – Ratio of the quantity toward the outer part of the annual growth ring. It's toward the outer part of the annual growth ring burden of the vapor however, for precision, should be thought about toward the outer part of the annual growth ring.
RIFT SAWN – Lumber where toward the outer part of the annual growth ring Levels to 60 Amounts with the surface of the piece.
RING POROUS – A set of hardwoods where the pores are large in the start of every annual expansion ring and decrease in size, give or take suddenly.
SAPWOOD – The timber near the outside the tree. Lighter in color than heartwood.
SAWN -. SCREEDS – Prime & Typically a two, by 4&Prime, laid flat side down and attached to a concrete subfloor to provide a nailing surface for tongued and grooved strip floors or a wood subfloor.
SLEEPER – An additional name for SCREEDS.
SHAKE – A separation along the grain, the greater part of which occurs between the yearly growth rings.
SHEATHING – The structural covering plywood or boards, placed within the external framework or rafters of a structure.
SLATS – The small hardwood pieces that form Mosaic Parquet Squares.
SLIP TONGUE – A spline or little wood or metal tapes used to reverse or alter direction in installing conventional tongue and groove strip flooring. Occasionally utilized in placing 3/4&Prime, strong Tongue & Groove parquet.
SOFTWOOD – General term used to describe lumber produced from a needles or cone bearing trees.
SPLIT – Separation of wood fiber parallel to grains.
SQUARES – Typically composed of an equal number of Slats
SQUARE EDGE – A flooring that is NOT Tongue & Grooved. Square edged strip floors are the face nailed once installed.
SQUARE JOINT – Tongue & Grooved strip or plank floors with edges that aren't eased or beveled.
STAIN – A discoloration occurring in or on floors of any color other than the natural color of the species. For example, blue stain, brown blot.
STRIP FLOORING – Strong planks to be set up in parallel rows today produced in the thicknesses 1/2&Prime, 3/4&Prime, 33/32&Prime, along with the widths 1- 1/2&Prime, 2&Prime, 2-1/4&Prime, and occasionally 3-1/4&Prime. The strips are Tongue & Grooved, and finish matched. They're for nail down installation directly to plywood or wood subfloors, or over wood screeds on a
concrete slab construction. STUD – One of a series of thin woods members utilized as supporting elements in walls and partitions.
TONGUE & GROOVE – In carvings, planks and parquet floors made from strip, and a few mosaic parquets, the tongue is milled on one edge and the groove on the other border. As the flooring is set up, the tongue of every strip, slat, or unit is engaged with the groove of the adjacent strip or unit.
TRIM – The finish materials in a building, like moldings, applied around openings or in the floor and ceiling of rooms.
UNFINISHED – A product that should be sanded and have blot and/or a complete applied after installation.
UNITS – more basic Mosaic Parquet Squares, or four or even more slats in 3/4&Prime, parquet, generally made from T&G strip flooring
combined into a parquet unit.